1. A

2. B

3. C

4. D

5. E

1. A

aneurysm - localized dilation and weakening of the wall of a vessel. An aneurysm may rupture causing a hemorrhage. (See page 87 of Mosby Dictionary for picture)

anterior - the front or facing front or forward.

anterior fossa floor - anterior means the front of something and fossa means a hollow or depression on the surface of a bone. The anterior fossa houses the frontal lobes of the cerebral hemisphere of the brain. The rough surface of this area can lead to tearing of the tissues during head trauma.

apnea - an absence of spontaneous respiration. This is often used as an excuse: He stopped breathing, so I shook him to revive him.

arrhythmia - a deviation from the normal heart rhythm.

arteriovenous malformation - malformation of arteries and veins or the junction of the two.

atrophy - a wasting or diminution of size or physiologic activity of a part of the body because of disease or other influences. Atrophy of the muscles can occur following an injury from shaken baby syndrome.

attenuation - the process of reduction.

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2. B

bi-lateral - two-sided. In shaken baby syndrome, hematomas or retinal hemorrhages are often bi-lateral.

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3. C

calvarium - The hard portion of the skull composed of the superior portions of the frontal, parietal and occipital bones.

cardiac tamponade - a compression of the heart usually produced by accumulation of blood in the pericardial sac, resulting from the rupture of vessels in the wall of the heart.

cardiomyopathy - any disease that affects the structure and function of the heart muscle.

cerebral edema - generalized swelling caused by accumulation of fluid on the brain. This is a common consequence of shaking and often leads to the death of a shaken baby syndrome victim.

child abuse - an injury or pattern of injuries to a child that is non-accidental, including, non-accidental physical injury (including shaken baby syndrome, physical abuse and neglect, sexual abuse and emotional abuse). Child abuse is against the law.

choroid - a thin, highly vascular membrane covering the posterior 5/6 of the eye between the retina and sclera.

chorioretinitis - (chorioretinopathy) - an inflammation condition of the choroid and retina of the eye, usually as a result of a parasitic or bacterial infection. It is characterized by blurred vision and distorted images.

ciliary body - the thickened part of the vascular tunic of the eye that joins the iris with the anterior portion of the choroid. (Picture in Mosby Dictionary page 337).

coagulopathy - a pathologic condition affecting the ability of the blood to coagulate (clot).

computed tomography (CT scan) - an x-ray technique that produces a film representing a detailed cross section of tissue structure. The procedure is painless, noninvasive and requires no special preparation. After the x-rays rotate in a complete circle, the images are then calculated to produce a visual picture of the tissues that demonstrates the densities of the various structures. Accumulation of fluids (cerebral edema) can be detected. When used in children who have been shaken it can identify the section of the brain that is damaged.

concussion - An impact or injury to the brain, which may result in a loss of consciousness following a blow to the head. A fracture may or may not be present.

contra lateral - originating in the opposite side of a point or reference point. Example: in the front of the skull and the back of the skull. In shaken baby syndrome, the injury to the brain is often contra lateral due to the back and forth motion.

contracture - an abnormal, usually permanent condition of the joint characterized by flexion and fixation and caused by atrophy and shortening of the muscle fibers or by the loss of the normal elasticity of the skin. These can occur following an injury from shaken baby syndrome.

contrecoup injury - an injury usually involving the brain, in which the tissue damage is on the opposite side of the site of the trauma, as when a blow to the left side of the brain results in brain damage on the right.

contusion - an injury that does not disrupt the integrity of the skin, caused by a blow to the body and characterized by swelling, discoloration and pain (bruise).

coronal or frontal - any one of the vertical planes passing through the body from head to the feet perpendicular to the sagittal.

cross or transverse - any one of the planes cutting across the body perpendicular to sagittal and frontal planes.

cytotoxic - an agent that destroys or damages tissue cells.

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4. D

dendrites - a branching process that extends from the cell body of a neuron. The dendrites receive impulses that are conducted to the cell body.

diffuse axonal injury - widespread injury (tearing) to the axon, the cylindric extension of a nerve cell that conducts impulses away from the neuron cell body. Axons may be bare or wrapped in myelin. Diffuse axonal injury is a consequence of shaken baby syndrome.

diffuse parenchymal hypodensity - (widespread) (the mass of a substance in a given substance) (of the functions of an organ or gland). Widespread low mass of the functioning part of an organ.(Suds vs. Soap bar)

distal - farthest from the point of origin.

dorsal - back or posterior.

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5. E

edema - swelling resulting from an excessive of fluid in tissues of the body in any location.

effusion - the escape of fluid into a part such as the pleural space around the lungs. Examples would be hemothorax (blood in the space) and pneumothorax (air in the space).

embolism - an abnormal circulatory condition, in which the embolus (a foreign object, air or gas, bit of a tissue or tumor, or a piece of a thrombus [clot]) that circulates in the bloodstream until it becomes lodged in a vessel.

encephalopathy - abnormal condition of the structure or function of the brain.

encephalomalacia - cerebral tissue softening.

endophthalmitis - an inflammatory condition of the internal eye; in which the eye becomes swollen, red, painful and filled with pus. May blur vision and cause vomiting, fever and headache.

enterocolitis - an inflammation involving both the large and small intestine.

epiphysis - The end of a long bone which contains the growth center of the bone in children.

extra corporeal membrane oxygenation - oxygenation by a device (EMCO) that oxygenates the blood of a patient outside of the body and returns the blood to the patient=s circulatory system. May be used to support an impaired respiratory system. Some victims who survive SBS are placed on this machine.

exudation - discharge of fluid, pus, or serum. May or may not contain fibrous or coagulated materials.

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