Medical Consensus

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General Consensus

In May 2018, The Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR), European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR), American Society of Pediatric Neuroradiology (ASPNR), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR), American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC), Swedish Paediatric Society, Norwegian Pediatric Association and Japanese Pediatric Society published a joint consensus statement on abusive head trauma/shaken baby syndrome. This is the most comprehensive and complete consensus statement published to date. The statement is published in Pediatric Radiology.

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American Academy of Pediatrics

AAP LogoThe use of broad medical terminology that is inclusive of all mechanisms of injury, including shaking, is required…The American Academy of Pediatrics supports prevention efforts that reduce the frequency of AHT and recognizes the utility of maintaining the use of the term “shaken baby syndrome” for prevention efforts.

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The World Health Organization

WorldHealth Logo… the baby will be considered a possible victim of ‘shaken baby syndrome’, a form of child abuse that involves the violent shaking of an infant…According to Dr Kieran Moran, forensic paediatrician at Sydney Children’s Hospital, babies are victims of violent shaking mainly in their first year of life, as that is often when they cry inconsolably and when parents and carers become most frustrated.

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The American Association of Neurological Surgeons

AmAssocNeuroSurg LogoShaken Baby Syndrome (also known as Shaken Impact Syndrome) is a serious form of abuse inflicted upon a child. It usually occurs when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby will not stop crying.

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Canadian Joint Statement on Shaken Baby Syndrome/Abusive Head Trauma

CanPaedSoc LogoShaken Baby Syndrome is a collection of findings, all of which may not be present in any individual child with the condition. Injuries that characterize Shaken Baby Syndrome are intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding in and around the brain); retinal hemorrhage (bleeding in the retina of the eye); and fractures of the ribs and at the ends of the long bones.

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The American Academy of Ophthalmology

AmerAcadOph LogoShaken Baby Syndrome is a subset of Abusive Head Trauma characterized by repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces with or without blunt head impact resulting in a unique complex of ocular, intracranial, and sometimes other injuries, usually in infants…it has become widely recognized as one of the most serious manifestations of physical child abuse.

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The American Academy of Neurology

AmerAcadNeur LogoShaken baby syndrome is a type of inflicted traumatic brain injury that happens when a baby is violently shaken. A baby has weak neck muscles and a large, heavy head. Shaking makes the fragile brain bounce back and forth inside the skull and causes bruising, swelling, and bleeding, which can lead to permanent, severe brain damage or death.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC LogoAbusive head trauma (AHT), which includes shaken baby syndrome, is a preventable and severe form of physical child abuse that results in an injury to the brain of an infant or child. AHT is most common in children under age five, with children under one year of age at most risk. It is caused by violent shaking or blunt impact.

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The Royal College of Ophthalmologists and The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health

RoyalColOpht LogoRoyalColPedsChHealth LogoA child suspected of abusive head injury is referred by paediatricians to an ophthalmologist for evaluation. The incidence of abusive head injury in children is highest in infancy and less frequently seen in children over 3 years of age. Retinal haemorrhages have a high positive predictive rate for abusive head injury.

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French Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

logo sofmerSBS is a type of inflicted, non-accidental or abusive head injury caused by shaking (either alone or combined with an impact). It mainly occurs in babies under the age of one.  It is thought that 180 to 200 children per year are victims of this type of abuse in France, although this value is certainly an underestimate. Failure to diagnose SBS increases the likelihood of recurrence.

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